Eastern Romance languages

Eastern Romance
Geographic
distribution
Balkans and part of Eastern Europe, western Basilicata (Italy)
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Subdivisions
east2714[1]

The Eastern Romance languages[2] are a group of Romance languages. Today, the group consists of the Balkan Romance (also known as Daco-Romance[2]) subgroup which comprises the Romanian language (Daco-Romanian), Aromanian language (Macedo-Romanian) and two other related minor languages, Megleno-Romanian and Istro-Romanian; and the Castelmezzano dialect, in southern Italy.[3][4][5]

Considered a bridge between Italian and Romanian,[6][7] some classifications also include the extinct Dalmatian language as part of the Balkan Romance subgroup (otherwise included in the Italo-Dalmatian group).[8][9][10]

Samples of Eastern Romance languages

Note: the lexicon used below is not universally recognized

Istro-Romanian[11][12][13]Aromanian[14][15]Megleno-Romanian[16]RomanianItalianFrenchEnglish
pićorciciorpiciorpiciorgambajambeleg
kľeptucheptukľeptupieptpettopoitrinechest
bireghinebinibinebenebienwell, good
bľeråazghirarizberzbieraruggirerugirto roar
fiľuhiljiľufiufigliofilsson
fiľahiljeiľefiicăfigliafilledaughter
ficåthicatficatfegatofoieliver
fihireirefiessereêtreto be
fľerheruierufierferroferiron
vițeluyitsãlvițålvițelvitelloveaucalf
(g)ľermiermughiarmiviermevermeverworm
viuyiughiuviuvivovivrealive
viptyiptuviptcibo (vitto)nourriturefood, grain
mľe(lu)njelm'ielmielagnelloagneaulamb
mľårenjarem'arimieremielemielhoney

See also

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Eastern Romance". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b Schulte 2009, p. 230.
  3. ^ Hammarström 2019, [1].
  4. ^ Agard 1984, p. 250.
  5. ^ Hall 1950, p. 16.
  6. ^ Posner 1996, p. 195.
  7. ^ Harris 1997, p. 22.
  8. ^ Swiggers 2011, p. 272.
  9. ^ Sampson 1999, p. 298.
  10. ^ Hall 1950, p. 24.
  11. ^ Lexicul Istroromân Moștenit din Latină
  12. ^ Istroromâna în viziunea lui Traian Cantemir
  13. ^ Istro-romanians: The Legacy of a Culture
  14. ^ Dialectul Aromân
  15. ^ Atlasul Lingvistic al Dialectului Aromân
  16. ^ Dialectul Meglenoromân

Sources

  • Agard, Frederick Browning (1984). A Course in Romance Linguistics Volume 2: A Diachronic View. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 0-87840-074-5.
  • Hall, Robert A., Jr. (1950). "The Reconstruction of Proto-Romance". Language. Linguistic Society of America. 26 (1): 6–27. 10.2307/410406.
  • Harris, Martin (1997). "The Romance Languages". In Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (eds.). The Romance Languages. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1–25. ISBN 978-0-415-16417-7.
  • Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin (2019). "Catalogue of languages and families". Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  • Posner, Rebecca (1996). The Romance Languages. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52-128139-3.
  • Sampson, Rodney (1999). Nasal Vowel Evolution in Romance. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-823848-5.
  • Schulte, Kim (2009). "Loanwords in Romanian". In Haspelmath, Martin; Tadmor, Uri (eds.). Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 230–259. ISBN 978-3-11-021843-5.
  • Swiggers, Pierre (2011). "Mapping the Romance Languages of Europe". In Lameli, Alfred; Kehrein, Roland; Rabanus, Stefan (eds.). Language Mapping: Part I. Part II: Maps. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 269–301. ISBN 978-3-11-021916-6.