Voiceless postalveolar affricate

Voiceless postalveolar affricate
t̠ʃ
IPA Number103 134
Encoding
Entity (decimal)t​͡​ʃ
Unicode (hex)U+0074 U+0361 U+0283
X-SAMPAtS or t_rS
Audio sample

The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨t͡ʃ⟩, ⟨t͜ʃ⟩ or ⟨⟩ (formerly the ligature ⟨ʧ⟩). It is familiar to English speakers as the "ch" sound in "chip".

Historically, this sound often derives from a former voiceless velar stop /k/ (as in English church; also in Gulf Arabic, Slavic languages, Indo-Iranian languages and Romance languages), or a voiceless dental stop /t/ by way of palatalization, especially next to a front vowel (as in English nature; also in Amharic, Portuguese etc.).

Features

Features of the voiceless domed postalveolar affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is palato-alveolar, that is, domed (partially palatalized) postalveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the front of the tongue bunched up ("domed") at the palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AdygheчэмыAbout this sound[t͡ʃamə] 'cow'Some dialects contrast labialized and non-labialized forms.
Albaniançelur[t͡ʃɛluɾ]'open'
AleutAtkan dialectchamĝul[t͡ʃɑmʁul]'to wash'
Amharicአንቺ[ant͡ʃi]'you'
Arabic[1]Central Palestinianمكتبة (Normally unwritten)[ˈmat͡ʃt̪abe]'library'Corresponds to [k] in Standard Arabic and other varieties. See Arabic phonology
Iraqiچتاب [t͡ʃɪˈt̪ɑːb]'book'
Jordanianكتاب (Normally unwritten) [t͡ʃɪˈt̪aːb]
ArmenianEastern[2]ճնճղուկAbout this sound[t͡ʃənt͡ʃʁuk] 'sparrow'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaicchmah[t͡ʃmaː]'how many?'Used in the Urmia and Nochiya dialects. Corresponds to [k] in other varieties.
AzerbaijaniƏkinçi[ækint͡ʃi]'the ploughman'
Bengaliশমা[t͡ʃɔʃma]'spectacles'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Basquetxalupa[t͡ʃalupa]'boat'
Bulgarianчучулига[t͡ʃut͡ʃuˈliɡɐ]'lark'See Bulgarian phonology
Central Alaskan Yup'iknacaq[ˈnat͡ʃaq]'parka hood'
Choctawhakchioma[hakt͡ʃioma]'tobacco'
CopticBohairic dialectϭⲟϩ[t͡ʃoh]'touch'
Czechmorče[ˈmo̞rt͡ʃɛ]'guinea pig'See Czech phonology
Englishleach[ˈliːt͡ʃ]'leach'See English phonology
Esperantoĉar[t͡ʃar]'because'See Esperanto phonology
Faroesegera[t͡ʃeːɹa]'to do'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Faroese phonology
FrenchStandardcaoutchouc[kaut͡ʃu]'rubber'Relatively rare; occurs mostly in loanwords. See French phonology
Acadiantiens[t͡ʃɛ̃]'(I/you) keep'Allophone of /k/ and /tj/ before a front vowel.
Galiciancheo[ˈt͡ʃeo]'full'Galician-Portuguese /t͡ʃ/ is conserved in Galician and merged with /ʃ/ in most Portuguese dialects. See Galician phonology
Georgian[3]იხი[t͡ʃixi]'impasse'
GermanStandard[4]Tschinelle[t͡ʃʷiˈnɛlə]'cymbal'Laminal or apico-laminal and strongly labialized.[4] See Standard German phonology
GreekCypriotτζ̌αι[t͡ʃe̞]'and'Contrasts with /t͡ʃʰː/ and prenasalised [d͡ʒ].
Hebrewתשובה[t͡ʃuˈva]'answer'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustaniचा چاۓ[t͡ʃɑːj]'tea'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Haitian Creolematch[mat͡ʃ]'sports match'
Hungariangyümölcs[ˈɟymølt͡ʃleː]'juice'See Hungarian phonology
Italian[5]ciao[ˈt͡ʃaːo]'ciao'See Italian phonology
K'iche'K'iche'[kʼiˈt͡ʃeʔ]'K'iche''Contrasts with ejective form
KabardianчэнжAbout this sound[t͡ʃanʒ] 'shallow'
Kashubian[6][example needed]
Korean미쳤다/michyeotda[mit͡ʃʰjʌt̚t˭ɐ]'crazy'
Macedonianчека[t͡ʃɛka]'wait'See Macedonian phonology
Malaycuci[t͡ʃut͡ʃi]'wash'
Maltesebliċ[blit͡ʃ]'bleach'
Manxçhiarn[ˈtʃaːrn]'lord'
Marathiहा[t͡ʃəhɑː]'tea'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Marathi phonology
Nahuatlāyōtōchtli[aːjoːˈtoːt͡ʃt͡ɬi]'armadillo'
NorwegianSome dialectskjøkken[t͡ʃøkːen]'kitchen'See Norwegian phonology
Nunggubuyu[7]jaro[t͡ʃaɾo]'needle'
Occitanchuc[ˈt͡ʃyk]'juice'See Occitan phonology
Persianچوب[t͡ʃʰuːb]'wood'See Persian phonology
PolishGmina Istebnaciemny[ˈt͡ʃɛmn̪ɘ]'dark'/ʈ͡ʂ/ and /t͡ɕ/ merge into [t͡ʃ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /t͡ʃ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiceless retroflex affricate.
Lubawa dialect[8]
Malbork dialect[8]
Ostróda dialect[8]
Warmia dialect[8]
PortugueseMost Brazilian dialects[9]presente[pɾe̞ˈzẽ̞t͡ʃi]'present'Allophone of /t/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when [i, ĩ, j] is not actually produced) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise. See Portuguese phonology
Most dialectstchau[ˈt͡ʃaw]'bye'In Standard European Portuguese it occurs only in recent loanwords.
Punjabiਚੌਲ[t͡ʃɔːl]'rice'
Quechuachunka[t͡ʃʊŋka]'ten'
Romaniancer[t͡ʃe̞r]'sky'See Romanian phonology
Rotuman[10]joni[ˈt͡ʃɔni]'to flee'
Scottish Gaelicslàinte[ˈsl̪ˠaːnʲt͡ʃə]'health'Southern dialects only; standard pronunciation is [tʲ]. See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-CroatianSome speakersčokoláda чоколада[t͡ʃo̞ko̞ˈɫǎ̠ːd̪a̠]'chocolate'In varieties that don't distinguish /ʈ͡ʂ/ from /t͡ɕ/.
SilesianGmina Istebna[11][example needed]These dialects merge /ʈ͡ʂ/ and /t͡ɕ/ into [t͡ʃ].
Jablunkov[11][example needed]
Spanish[12]chocolateAbout this sound[t͡ʃo̞ko̞ˈlät̪e̞] 'chocolate'See Spanish phonology
Swahilijicho[ʄit͡ʃo]'eye'
SwedishFinlandtjugo[t͡ʃʉːɡʉ]'twenty'See Swedish phonology
Some rural Swedish dialectskärlek[t͡ʃæːɭeːk]'love'
Tlingitjinkaat[ˈt͡ʃiŋkʰaːtʰ]'ten'
Turkishçok[t͡ʃok]'very'See Turkish phonology
UbykhÇəbƹəja[t͡ʃəbʒəja]'pepper'See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian[13]чотири[t͡ʃo̞ˈtɪrɪ]'four'See Ukrainian phonology
ZapotecTilquiapan[14]chane[t͡ʃanɘ]

Mandarin Chinese, Russian, Japanese, Korean, Mongolian, Polish, Catalan, and Thai have a voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate /t͡ɕ/; this is technically postalveolar but it is less precise to use /t͡ʃ/.

Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant affricate

Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant affricate
t̠ɹ̠̊˔
tɹ̝̊˗
Audio sample

Features

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
EnglishAustralian[15]tree[t̠ɹ̠̊˔ʷɪi̯]'tree'Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /tr/.[15][16][17][18] In General American and Received Pronunciation, the less common alternative is alveolar [tɹ̝̊].[16] See Australian English phonology and English phonology
General American[16][17]
Received Pronunciation[16][17]
Port Talbot[18][t̠ɹ̠̊˔iː]

Notes

  1. ^ Watson (2002:17)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  3. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  4. ^ a b Mangold (2005:51–52)
  5. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  6. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
  7. ^ Ladefoged (2005:158)
  8. ^ a b c d Dubisz, Karaś & Kolis (1995:62)
  9. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:228)
  10. ^ Blevins (1994:492)
  11. ^ a b Dąbrowska (2004:?)
  12. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  13. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  14. ^ Merrill (2008:108)
  15. ^ a b Cox & Fletcher (2017), p. 144.
  16. ^ a b c d Gimson (2014), pp. 177, 186–188, 192.
  17. ^ a b c Wells (2008).
  18. ^ a b Connolly (1990), p. 121.

References

External links